Available modules

In this module you can find interesting information about flood and ice forecasting practices in the Danube River Basin and a short introduction of the DAREFFORT project which provided framework for this e-learning course. This module does not require any background knowledge on the topic. It is recommended for anyone seeking more understanding on flood and ice forecasting in the Danube River Basin, why is it important and how does it work.

Basic concepts of flood forecasting and warnings are presented (why forecasting and why warnings) and what is needed for flood forecasting (models, data, etc.) is elaborated.


Basic concepts of the hydrological and meteorological monitoring, data collection, processing and dissemination and data acquisition are presented within this course. 

The course is dedicated to professionals and students with basic knowledge about main hydrological and meteorological processes.  


  • Introduction, past ice events on the Danube
  • River ice phenomena
  • Ice cover monitoring in the Danube River Basin
  • Theoretical background of river ice forecasting
    •      Formation of ice
    •      Water energy balance
    •      River ice freeze-up
    •      Ice cover breakup
    •      Disapperance of ice
  • River ice forecasts of the National Hydrological Forecasting Services
  • Disseminations of the results


  • Particularities of Flash Floods generation mechanisms.
  • Early warning systems for flash floods forecasting.
  • Future needs and research priorities, for improving the monitoring and forecasting systems, to better support the flash floods warning process.

General concepts and methods for the hydrological forecasts verification process.

  • Basic concepts
  • Userland services (Data nodes, the central web service)
  • Developer services (Distribution nodes, Client nodes, the API system and more)
  • Operating a service - running a distribution node


This course deals with the Data Life Cycle. It is adressed to the target groups of Public, Professionals and Education.

  • Representative National Flood Forecasting and Warning Systems in the Upper Danube River Basin - general description; input data; modelling components; main hydrological forecasts and warning products; needs and plans for development.


  • European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) -  concepts and main objectives; input data; modelling components; main products; ongoing and future plans for development.
  • Flood Forecasting and Warning System for the Sava River Basin (Sava FFWS) -  concepts and main objectives; input data; modelling components; main products; ongoing and future plans for development.
  • South East Europe Flash Flood Guidance System (SEE-FFGS) -  concepts and main objectives; input data; modelling components; main products; ongoing and future plans for development.
  • South-East European Multi-Hazard Early Warning Advisory System (SEE-MHEWS-A) -  concepts and main objectives; current status and implementation plan.